Psychologie a její kontexty, Vol.6, No.1
Řešení problémů: Rozdílné znaky prosociálního chování a řešení některých logických úloh
Problem Solving: The Different Characteristics of the Prosocial Behavior and Solving of Some Logical Tasks
Jiří Patočka, Helena Záškodná
Hanojská věž je matematická hra nebo hlavolam. Cílem řešení hlavolamu je přesunout celý sloupec disků z jedné tyče na druhou tyč, přičemž musí být dodržována určitá pravidla. Při řešení tohoto a jemu podobných hlavolamů na bázi hanojské věže hrají důležitou úlohu funkce čelního mozkového laloku. Řada studií ukázala, že řešení hlavolamu je narušeno u pacientů s lézemi čelního laloku.
Mechanický trojrozměrný hlavolam hanojská věž se stal populárním nástrojem v neuropsychologii pro měření exekutivních funkcí jako je pracovní paměť, plánování, řešení problémů, apod. Lze jej využít k nácviku strategií řešit problémy a řešení procvičovat. Formou řešení problému je také poskytování pomoci osobě v nouzi, kde se častěji uplatňuje naturalistické rozhodování. Článek popisuje diference rozhodování v různých typech problémových situací.
řešení problému, hlavolam, hanojská věž, neuropsychologický test, prosociální chování, naturalistické rozhodování, kognitivní procesy
The Tower of Hanoi is a mathematical puzzle invented by the French mathematician Edouard Lucas. The objective of the game is to move the entire stack to another rod, while obeying the game rules. The puzzle plays an important role in the assessment of frontal lobe function. A number of studies have demonstrated that with respect to this test, performance is impaired among patients with frontal lobe lesions.
The tree-dimensional Tower of Hanoi has become popular instrument in neuropsychology and gain importance for working memory, planning a problem solving theories. It can be used to practice strategies to solve problems. This can help in emergency in case naturalistic decision making is applicable.
What makes the difference when deciding in various types of the problem situations? While practicing problem solving, an individual creates and improves systematic solution plan which consists according to Plhakova of identification of the problem, definition and formulation, generation of possible solutions, exploring the viable strategy, considering the short and long term advantages and disadvantages of various solutions, choice of the solution and its implementation and finally evaluation of the result. Practicing the problem-solving strategies improves according Plhakova the general problem-solving skills of an individual. Some of these cognitive steps are described in the famous model of providing assistance to a person in emergency by Schwarz and Howard. The model shows multiple faces of human altruism and referees to factors which presence can stop a person from helping others. For a person who helps others it means to solve a certain problem. According to the model by Schwarz et al, helping in difficult situations as well as with common problems, is a complex event that may take place in different ways depending on the type of the task, situation as well as personality.
By solving the puzzle general cognitive skills can be improved. These skills make an important aspect of prosocial behavior. But we cannot ignore the fact that prosocial behavior in emergency situations related to emotional stress has its significant decisions specifics. It goes without saying that the understanding of cognitive emergency strategies is not enough to make a person to provide help in emergency. Furthermore, the real situations require effective decisions even if sufficient quantity reliable information is not available. The question is therefore how the decision-making process in real situations differs from the decision made while solving the puzzle. The classic normative decision-making theory (Frisch, Baron) relates to rational thinking human being. According to the normative theory man chooses such behavior, which is the best in a given situation and is associated with maximum profit. However in the real life, people are facing situations in which they do not fully understand and the problem is not clearly defined.
Naturalistic decision is a process in which the knowledge is sequentially transformed until the decision point.
Decision is adaptive cognitive activity which contains according to Payne certain assumptions:
a) Strategies for decision-making are typically at different level of precision;
b) Strategies are determined by the context within which the task is solved;
c) There are several strategies for solving the problem at different levels of complexity;
d) Selection of the strategy might not be conscious.
Overall we can state that both prosocial behavior and successful Hanoi tower puzzle solving are related to problem solving abilities.
While the naturalistic decision making is often accompanied by time stress, incomplete ambiguous information, difficult risk assessment and high emotional impact under artificial conditions the problem is solved without stress, with clear information with well-defined objectives and low emotional impact. Naturalistic decision making involves complex cognitive processes repeated evaluation and processing of complex dynamic stimuli in situations of high uncertainty often under time and emotional pressure. While the Tower of Hanoi is an example of a structured issue, emergency aid is an example of not well structured problem. It is a task that requires intuitive thinking, motivation, evaluation of optional steps and involves emotions. Naturalistic decision made in emergency is similar to decision made by rescuers or firefighters. The present study shows how personal helping skills can be improved as well as studied further. The naturalistic decision theory is discussed as well as strategies used to achieve effective decisions (Wiggins, Henley).
problem solving, puzzle, tower of Hanoi, neuropsychological test, prosocial behavior, naturalistic decision making, cognitive processes