Psychologie a její kontexty, Vol.8, No.2

Vzťah psychologickej pohody a copingových stratégií u vysokoškolákov

Relationship psychological well-being and coping strategies in university students

Zuzana Mičková

V štúdií sme zisťovali rodové rozdiely a vzťah medzi psychologickou pohodou a stratégiami zvládania záťaže. K zisteniu kvality psychologickej pohody bola použitá multidimenzionálna škála Ryffovej (1989) a k zisteniu adaptívnych/maladaptívnych stratégií zvládania bol použitý dotazník COPE (Carver, Scheier, Weintraub,1989). Výskumnú vzorku tvorilo (N = 120) vysokoškolákov 68 žien AM (Ž) = 22,78; 52 mužov, AM (M) = 23,50. V psychologickej pohode boli zistené rodové rozdiely, konkrétne preferencia autonómie u mužov a pozitívnych vzťahov u žien. Pozitívny vzťah bol zistený medzi psychologickou pohodou a adaptívnymi stratégiami a negatívny vzťah medzi psychologickou pohodou a maladaptívnymi stratégiami zvládania.

Klíčová slova:
psychologická pohoda, coping, záťaž, gender

The study focuses on the quality of psychological well-being of college students, identifying gender differences in areas of psychological well-being such as autonomy, environmental management, personal growth, positive relationships, meaning of life and self-acceptance. Simultaneously, the study verifies the relationship between psychological well-being and coping, which is understood as the dispositional ability to deal with life situations (Carver, Scheier, Weintraub, 1989). Psychological well-being is understood in accordance with Ryff’s concept (1995). According to the author, the concept is multifactorial determined and influenced by the humanistic psychology, by the theory of psychological development of Erikson, Allport’s conception of maturity, the concept of Jung and Rogers, Bühlers theory of basic life tendencies (Ryff, Keyes, Hughes, 2003; Blatný, 2010). To determine the quality of psychological well-being was used Ryff’s multidimensional scale (1989), and to discover the adaptive/maladaptive strategies of coping management was used the COPE questionnaire (Carver, Scheier, Weintraub, 1989). The study sample consisted of (N = 120) adolescents, 68 women AM women = 22.78; 52 men, AM men = 23.50. The research results point to differences in psychological well-being among male and female students. It occurs, that men have higher rate of autonomy and women interpersonal relationships. The total rate of psychological well-being of both men and women have the average psychological level of psychological well-being. The relationship between psychological well-being and coping strategies point to the significance of a protective factor that can be considered on the basis of research findings the positive reinterpretation. The risk factor can be considered a strategy of distraction, withdrawal (resignation). Women underlie more social pressure of the environment. The reason may be the different definition of the social role of man and woman where from a man is expected to be the provider oriented to a career of success, while the role of a woman is to maintain harmonic relationships in the family. The need to create social relationships is the reason for their efforts to establish confidential and satisfactory interpersonal relationships. Male students against female students are more able to withstand social pressure, their behavior is subject to more assessment according to their own criteria and values. In the overall of psychological well-being we not found any gender differences, which can be attributed to a high degree of motivation and volunteer activity as well as for male and female students, the development of their needs related to professional practice in selected professions. It can be said that gender differences between male and female college students refer only to specific areas of psychological well-being, not its overall quality.

psychological well-being, coping, stres, gender