Psychologie a její kontexty, Vol.9, No.2

Hanba za vlastné telo, body image a sebahodnotenie v období strednej a neskorej adolescencie

Body shame, body image and self-esteem in the middle and late adolescence

Laura Penzešová, Lucia Martinčeková

Cieľom štúdie bolo zistiť vzťah medzi hanbou za vlastné telo, body image a sebahodnotením u oboch pohlaví v období strednej a neskorej adolescencie. Vy´skumny´ súbor tvorilo 434 adolescentov (M = 18.6, SD = 2.11). Údaje boli získané pomocou subškály Hanby za vlastné telo zo Škály objektivizovaného vnímania tela, Dotazníka Body Image, Rosenbergovej škály sebahodnotenia a BMI indexu. Práca preukázala negatívny vzťah medzi hanbou za vlastné telo a body image, ako aj medzi hanbou za vlastné telo a sebahodnotením u žien aj u mužov. Výsledky ukázali, že body image pôsobí ako mediátor vzťahu medzi hanbou za vlastné telo a sebahodnotením. Ukázalo sa, že medzi hanbou za vlastné telo a BMI je slaby´ pozitívny vzťah iba u žien. Ženy v období strednej a neskorej adolescencie vykazovali vyššiu mieru hanby za vlastné telo ako muži. Naopak muži vykazovali vyššie sebahodnotenie a pozitívnejší body image ako ženy. Výsledky prispievajú k chápaniu hanby za vlastné telo ako dôležitého faktora sebahodnotenia v adolescencii.

Klíčová slova:
adolescencia, BMI, body image, hanba za vlastné telo, sebahodnotenie

The primary goal of this study was to determine the relationship between body shame, body image and self-esteem in both sexes during middle and late adolescence. Body shame is defined as a negative evaluation of one’s body, body’s functions and aspects, such as body hair and nakedness, as well as a desire to hide one’s body (Gilbert, 2002; Schooler et al., 2005). Body image means a way person thinks about and perceives his/her body, which include weight, appearance, health, and fitness (Fialová, 2006; Grogan, 2000). Previous studies show that body shame is negatively related to body image in women (Mustapic et al., 2015; Sanftner et al., 1995), however, this relationship is unclear in men. Number of previous studies show that higher body shame is related to lower self-esteem (Jankauskiene & Pajaujiene, 2012; Choma et al., 2010). This research aims at testing body image as a potential mediator between body shame and self-esteem. The research sample consisted of 434 adolescents aged 14–21 years (M = 18.6, SD = 2.11). Data was collected by using the The Body Shame Subscale from The Objectified Body Consciouness Scale [BSS; McKinley & Hyde, 1996], Body Image Questionaire [BIQ; Koleck, Bruchton-Schweitzer, Cousson-Gélie, Gilliard, & Quintard, 2002] and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale [RSES; Rosenberg, 1965]. Participants were also asked about their height and weight in order to measure BMI. The relations between variables were examined by correlation analysis, mediation analysis, and non-parametric tests for comparing groups. The study confirmed the negative correlation of body shame with body image (r = -0.32) and with self-esteem (r = -0.42) in women. Similar negative relationships were found between body image and body shame in men (r = -0.34) as well as between body shame and self-esteem in men (r = -0.35). Strong negative relationships between self-esteem and body image in women (r = 0.68) and men (r = 0.66) were found. Moreover, mediation analysis has shown that body image serves as a mediator between body shame and self-esteem. Therefore, we assume, that interventions aimed at decreasing body shame could lead to the increase in adolescents’ self-esteem through the improvement of their body image. Our second goal was to measure the association of body shame with BMI in both sexes. Previous studies showed positive association between BMI and body shame in women, however, the relationship of BMI and body shame is inconsistent in men (e.g. Fredrickson et al., 1998; Mustapic et al., 2015). The results of this study showed a weak positive relationship between body shame and BMI in women (r = 0.10), however, the relationship between body shame and BMI was not significant in men. One of the explanations for this result might be that BMI does not determine the exact ratio of body fat and muscle mass. Also, there may be other factors which contribute to body shame in adolescents, such as eating attitudes, exercising, or media-portrayed idealized images, and these factors may be worth examining in the future studies. The third goal of this study was to measure the differences in body shame, body image, and self-esteem between women and men. As expected, women in the middle and late adolescence reported higher body shame than men. Men, on the other hand, reported higher self-esteem and more positive body image than women. The results contribute to understanding of body shame as an important factor of self-esteem during the adolescence. The results may help in the development of psychological strategies for prevention and intervention to reduce body shame. in both sexes

adolescence, BMI, body image, body shame, self-esteem