Psychologie a její kontexty, Vol.9, No.1

Školské sebapoňatie a kvalita interpersonálnych vzťahov adolescenta

Academic self-concept and quality of interpersonal relationships of adolescent

Miroslava Balážová, Marta Popelková

Obdobie adolescencie sa vyznačuje nárastom významu interpersonálnych vzťahov, formovaním self a stupňovaním dôležitosti školského sebapoňatia ako jednej z dimenzií celkového sebapoňatia. Cieľom štúdie bolo skúmať vzťahy medzi školským sebapoňatím a kvalitou interpersonálnych vzťahov s rodičmi, kamarátmi a spolužiakmi u dospievajúcich chlapcov a dievčat. Výskumu sa zúčastnilo 104 gymnazistov (48 chlapcov a 56 dievčat) vo veku 15–20 rokov (AM=17.62; SD=1.10). Použité boli dotazníky Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (Liu & Wang, 2005) a Quality of Relationship Inventory (Pierce, Sarason, & Sarason, 1991). Výsledky ukázali, že dimenzia školské úsilie u chlapcov má pozitívny vzťah s hĺbkou vzťahu s matkou aj s otcom a školské úsilie u dievčat má pozitívny vzťah s podporou a hĺbkou vzťahu so spolužiakmi. Dospievajúci chlapci a dievčatá sa nelíšili v školskom sebapoňatí. Dievčatá dosahovali vyššie skóre v dimenziách podpora a hĺbka vzťahu s matkou a s kamarátmi.

Klíčová slova:
školské sebapoňatie, kvalita interpersonálnych vzťahov, adolescencia

Adolescence is a period which is characterized by an increase in the importance of interpersonal relationships and by search for a balance between relationships with parents and peers. At the same time, self is being formed and the importance of academic selfconcept as one of the dimensions of the total adolescent‘s self-concept is increasing. The aim of study was explore relations between total academic self-concept and its dimensions (academic effort and academic confidence) and quality of interpersonal relationships with significant people in adolescent‘s life (mother, father, friends and classmates) and its dimensions (support, depth and conflicts). These relations were explored separately for adolescent boys and girls. Intersexual differences in academic self-concept and quality of relationships (including their dimensions) were studied too. Research sample was made by 104 grammar school pupils (48 boys and 56 girls). All four grades of high school were represented in the sample. Respondents were aged from 15 to 20 years old (AM=17.62; SD=1.10). Two measures were used – Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (Liu & Wang, 2005) for exploring of adolescent‘s academic self-concept and its dimensions and Quality of Relationship Inventory (Pierce, Sarason, & Sarason, 1991) for exploring of adolescent‘s view on quality of his or her relationship with mother, father, friends and classmates. Spearman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney‘s U-test and Student‘s independent sample t-test were used for statistical analysis. These results indicated that secure attachment and closeness to both of parents (characteristic for dimension depth of relationships) are associated with higher interest in school, motivation to activity on lessons and higher effort to meet school responsibilities in adolescent boys. Academic effort has positive relationship with support and depth of relationship with classmates in adolescent girls. These findings indicate that positive clime in class is important for interest in school and efforts to meet school responsibilities of adolescent girls. Girls are probably compared with classmates and their support and acceptance affects girls‘ academic self-concept more than in case of adolescent boys. Total academic self-concept and academic confidence aren‘t associated with dimensions of quality of relationships with parents and friends for adolescent boys and girls. These findings indicate that confidence in one‘s own school abilities is associated with another variables for pupils. On the parents‘ side, it can be interest, communication, expectations or feedback about school and school responsibilities. On the peers‘ side, it can be support or evaluation of school performance and success. On the teacher‘s side, it can be expectations, feedback or support. Our findings indicate that adolescent boys and girls don‘t differ in total academic self-concept. Girls reported higher effort and interest in lessons, and they pay more attention to teachers (higher score in dimension academic effort), while boys reported higher confidence in their own school abilities (higher score in dimension academic confidence). These differences in dimensions of academic self-concept weren‘t significant. Adolescent girls reached higher level in dimensions of quality of interpersonal relationships – support and depth of relationship with mother and friends. Adolescent boys and girls perceived their relationships with classmates as less supportive and less close compared to relationships with parents or friends. These findings are in line with observations of teachers and school psychologists who point to worsening relationships in school classes.

academic self-concept, quality of interpersonal relationships, adolescence