Psychologie a její kontexty, Vol.10, No.1

DOI: 10.15452/PsyX.2019.10.0003

Teorie plánovaného chování a její využití ve výzkumu

The theory of planned behavior and its applicability in research

Tereza Příhodová, Marek Preiss

Tato práce seznamuje s podstatou a vznikem teorie plánovaného chování. Ajzenova teorie plánovaného chování byla aplikována u řady pozitivních i negativních aspektů chování, kde prokázala svoji schopnost predikce skutečného chování do budoucna. Práce se tak dále zabývá schopnostmi predikce a aplikace teorie plánovaného chování na negativní aspekty chování, konkrétně kontraproduktivního. Seznamuje čtenáře s výsledky studií vztahující teorii plánovaného chování a kontraproduktivní chování a jemu příbuzné koncepty. Domníváme se, že měření úrovně a schopnost predikce výskytu nežádoucího chování ve spojitosti s dalšími instrumenty (např. testy integrity) může být především pro budoucí zaměstnavatele přínosnou složkou při rozhodování mezi kandidáty přijímacích řízení.

Klíčová slova:
postoje, teorie plánovaného chování, kontraproduktivní chování

The Theory of planned behavior, originating from the Theory of reasoned action, was at first introduced by Ajzen and Fishbein in 1975 as a theoretical model predicting behavior. The model is composed of 5 factors including attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intention and actual behavior. In the model, attitudes, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control serve as independent variables, often labelled as determinants of studied behavior. First studies applying this model predicting behavior focused mainly on positive aspects of behavior, such as weight loss programs, election turnout or attendance of worship services. This article familiarizes a reader with the nature and origin of the Theory of planned behavior and emphases behaviors on the opposite side of the spectrum, hence negative behaviors. It is expected that participants will show higher tendencies to report positive or pro-social behavior, however would the same be true if researchers target negative aspects of behavior? For the purpose of this article, authors chose on the negative side of the spectrum specifically counterproductive work behavior. Counterproductive work behavior is by the definition any behavior that harms employer or an organization. Detailed analysis divides this behavior into four categories, which are production deviance, property deviance, political deviance and personal aggression. Each of this category is described and examples of behaviors are provided. Thus far the prediction of the occurrence of any of these types of behavior was detected using integrity tests. Research showed that these tests aid in the reduction of the total amount of compensations related to for example injury at work or damage of a work property. However, there has been a large wave of criticism concerning these tests, especially from the aspect of social desirable responding and the use of overt type of assessments. Therefore this article summarizes previous works and opens new spectrum for future research focusing on behavior prediction and applicability of the Theory of planned behavior on negative aspects of behaviors. It is further expected that the ability to predict and measure the level of the occurrence of undesirable behavior in connection with other instruments (such as integrity tests) could be a major contributor to decision-making process among candidates for admission procedures. This assumption was based on the literature review supported by number of specialists in the field, who recommend employers to be prudent during the selection process in case of for example individuals with the history of problematic school record. These individuals may increase their costs associated with the deceitful behavior. Incorporations of specific techniques, such as integrity tests or Ajzen’s Theory of planned behavior during the job interviews, would allow to obtain tools predicting tampering behaviors at the individual level and use them during the critical decision-making process.

attitudes, theory of planned behavior, counterproductive work behavior